Evidence on these relationships is accumulating in a variety of disciplines and subfields of economics, and a number of emerging hypotheses merit refinement and concerted empirical study to test the magnitude of behavioral and technical responses, to determine which biological and behavioral pathways are involved in these responses, and to assess longer-run consequences of programs and policies after individuals and families reallocate their lifetime resources. Such externalities, positive and negative, do represent a legitimate concern for all those affected. Carrying capacity i…, Population Policies, Strategies for Fertility Control in, Population Policies, Migration and Refugees in, Population Policies, Demographic Aspects of, Population Genetics and the Problem of Diversity, Population Ethics: III. Individual nations face their own population challenges, however, and action by national governments will be key to securing a sustainable global population. International aspects of population policy have become increasingly salient in the contemporary world. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Achieving a healthy and educated world population is an important U.S. strategic objective. Washington, D.C.: Overseas Development Council. However, they were no longer considered "pronatalist" but were absorbed within the more encompassing frames of family and general welfare policy. . 1972. But this time individual aspirations generate a deficit rather than an excess in population growth. 1967. 1991. Religious Traditions: B. Islamic Perspectives, Population Ethics: III. "Population Policy ——. But given the special priority accorded to family planning services in foreign assistance, typically they were organized as a separate "vertical" program, or kept administratively distinct within the broad health program. 2001. An effective and realistic population policy aims at ensuring that the rate of economic and social development is ahead of the rate of population growth. But by all evidence, any upward pressure on fertility from these restrictions was swamped by the downward pressure on parental demand for children resulting from the state policies and programs just mentioned. Finally, even if the will were there, there is a paucity of effective pronatalist policy instruments. Population and Development Review 1: 87–114. Population policy may be defined as deliberately constructed or modified institutional arrangements and/or specific programs through which governments influence, directly or indirectly, demographic change. Restrictions on freedom to act take the form of social expectations and pressures that individuals can ignore only at considerable personal costs to themselves. During the long nineteenth-century–that may be thought of as stretching to the outbreak of the First World War–the politics in Europe and in its over-seas offshoots favored, even if imperfectly, the development of institutional and legal frameworks in harmony with such principles. A demographic policy often regarded as potentially helpful in this regard is encouragement of immigration. Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, in Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 2016. The strict one-child policy only applied to 36 percent of the population. Those groups practicing the most advantageous customs will have an advantage in the constant struggle between adjacent groups over those that practise less advantageous customs. Most governments as well as the general public tend to view below-replacement fertility with an equanimity quite unlike the alarmed reaction that the same phenomenon elicited when it first emerged between the two World Wars. During the interval between the onset of the decline in mortality and the sustained and substantial decline in fertility, the natural rate of population growth tends to increase and the age composition of the population changes. Cassen, Robert, and contributors. The cost of birth control technology was, in itself, relatively modest. At the eve of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, a review, considered highly respectful of the importance of fertility decline for successful development, reached the guarded conclusion that the evidence on the subject "mostly support the view that rapid population growth in poor countries under conditions of high fertility is inimical to many development goals"–with stress on the qualifying words "mostly," "high fertility," "many development goals," and "rapid," and with the last-mentioned term defined as "in excess of 2 percent annually" (Cassen 1994, p. 13). This, in interaction with economic and cultural changes shaped by the industrial revolution, created a milieu that fostered the prudential habits of parents, rendering the micro-level calculus of the costs and benefits of children increasingly salient. McIntosh, C. Alison, and Jason L. Finkle. It is not novel that economists, especially macro- and micro-oriented economists who tend to examine empirically different types of data, country aggregates or individual and household observations, have not always reached a consensus on population issues. 1999. "Desired Fertility and the Impact of Population Policies." The demographic weight of such countries within the global total in the foreseeable future would continue to shrink, raising possible problems of a shifting geopolitical balance. Despite the challenges, there is a moral imperative to work with and support parents and children currently living in mixed-status households. Many career-oriented women voluntarily remain childless; many others prefer a single child. "Fertility, Family, and Social Policy in Contemporary Western Europe." These measures had little effect. Section 9 notes the connections between the demographic transition, development, and internal migration, and the problems its raises for policy evaluation studies. Equality, the Third World, and Economic Delusion. In the twentieth century, with the gradual improvement of medicine, people's health improved, and as a result, the death rate decreased continuously, from 20 d… Cross, Máire, and Sheila Perry, eds. 1994. J.L. Normative Approaches, Population Ethics: I. More than half the families were allowed to have a second child if their first baby was a girl. New York: United Nations. But rising material expectations, broadening opportunities for social mobility, and the patterns and circumstance of urban living pulled in the opposite direction. In U. S., Commission on Population Growth and the American Future, Aspects of Population Growth Policy, Vol VI of Commission research reports, pp. Population Ethics: I. Bongaarts, John. Whipps, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, in, Advances in Child Development and Behavior. ——. These projections are feasible if the National Population Policy 2000 is fully implemented. There is little indication at present that policies directed at enhanced compatibility achieve that result. Types of Population Policies Concern with this last component is usually seen as a matter for health policy, leaving fertility and migration as the key objects of governmental interest in population policy. Developmental scientists and intervention researchers hoping to work with these mixed-status families face a myriad of challenges, largely generated from the population's policy-driven social exclusion. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). Encyclopedia.com. There’s a debate over whether or not the policy worked. A transition to low fertility presupposed changing preferences, and such preferences were responses to market signals. Population policy will alter with these changes, likely focusing on aging and migration, as well as reproductive health issues. Politics may be regarded as the lens through which demographic data is viewed. But some of the more successful programs, notably in Asia, tended to increase acceptance by often heavy-handed methods of persuasion, and, in the especially important case of China, by coercion backed by legal sanctions. These typically included such items as "doorstep accessibility of quality services," "broad choice of contraceptive methods," "forceful IEC [information, education, and communication] programs," "sound financing strategies," "sound management with proper logistics," "evaluation systems," "a continuous process of strategic thinking, planning and management," and "staff leadership for program parameters" (Mahler 1992,p.
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